Early Childhood Research & Practice is in the process of moving to the early childhood special education program at Loyola University Chicago after 17 years at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. We are delighted by the opportunity to “pass the torch” to our Loyola early childhood colleagues.

We suggest you visit ECRP’s Facebook page for future updates.

HomeJournal ContentsIssue Contents
Volume 1 Number 1
©The Author(s) 1999

ERIC Database Citations on Topics Discussed in This Issue

Mixed-Age Grouping
Project Approach
Distance Education
Professional Development Schools
Teacher-Parent Partnerships
Electronic Journals

Mixed-Age Grouping

ERIC Documents

ED416456 CS013066
Implementing Multiage Education: A Practical Guide.
Kasten, Wendy C.; Lolli, Elizabeth Monce
ISBN: 0-926842-78-1
Available From: Christopher-Gordon Publishers, Inc., 1502 Providence Highway, Suite 12, Norwood, MA 02062 ($25.95 plus 10% shipping/handling).
Document Not Available from EDRS.
Geographic Source: U.S.; Massachusetts
Target Audience: Practitioners
Noting that multiage education continues to receive a great deal of interest as educators, legislators, and parents seek to find ways to improve educational experiences for all children, this book takes readers by the hand and guides them as they move from exploring the concept of multiage to the actual stages of implementation. As is consistent with the philosophy of multiage, the book does not suggest that there is only one right way to put multiage into practice but presents many possible avenues to beginning multiage classes. "Clipboards" and "memos" at the end of each chapter provide summaries or discussion questions for the faculty to ponder as they decide if and how to implement multiaging in their school. After a foreword by Barbara Nelson Pavan and an introduction, chapters in the book are: (1) "Why Become Multiage"; (2) "Changing the Face of Education--Successfully"; (3) "Designing the Multiage School"; (4) "Schoolwide Considerations"; (5) "Setting the Stage: Curriculum and Instruction in a Context"; (6) "Designing the Multiage Curriculum"; (7) "Implementing Your Curriculum in the Multiage Classroom"; (8) "Math in the Multiage Classroom"; and (9) "Assessment in the Multiage Classroom." Contains approximately 220 references; 17 appendixes include survey instruments, class list forms, standards for various content areas, and a list of whole language beliefs; contains a 52-item glossary). (RS)
Descriptors: *Classroom Environment; Curriculum Development; *Educational Change; Elementary Secondary Education; Evaluation Methods; Language Arts; Mathematics Instruction; *Mixed Age Grouping; Program Implementation; *Student Evaluation
Identifiers: Educational Issues

ED415217 SP037726
Inside the One Room Schoolhouse: A Look at Nongraded Classrooms from the Inside Out.
Britt, Patricia M.
18p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association (Memphis, TN, November 12-14, 1997).
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Geographic Source: U.S.; Mississippi
This study examined nongraded, multi-age elementary classrooms from the perspective of involved principals, teachers, and parents. Data came from field notes taken at on-site observations and from in-person structured and unstructured interviews with principals and teachers. The schools were all located in a small urban town in north central Mississippi. The study found that the schools set up and operated the nongraded classrooms in different ways. The classrooms operated according to the philosophy of the teachers in charge of the classes under the guidance of the principal; each classroom was different from the next. The schools that experienced the most success were those in which the teachers did not feel threatened and were given the freedom to operate as they deemed appropriate. Some parent concerns included mixing the sexes, having siblings in the same room, giving up traditional grading and assessment, and possibly short-changing math. Keeping parents continually informed and working together with the school, teacher, and students were important guiding principles to ensure success, according to one principal. Another principal stated that authentic assessment was the key to success. (Contains 8 references.) (SM)
Descriptors: Administrator Attitudes; Elementary Education; Elementary School Students; Elementary School Teachers; *Mixed Age Grouping; *Nongraded Instructional Grouping; Parent Attitudes; *Parent School Relationship; *Parent Teacher Cooperation; Portfolio Assessment; Principals; School Restructuring; Student Evaluation; Teacher Attitudes
Identifiers: Mississippi (North)

ED409604 EA028387
Building Support for Multiage Education. ERIC Digest, Number 114.
Gaustad, Joan
ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.
Jun 1997
Report No: EDO-EA-97-6
Available From: ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, 5207, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403-5207.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Document Type: ERIC PRODUCT (071); ERIC DIGESTS (SELECTED) (073)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Oregon
Multiage education involves placing children of different ages, abilities, and emotional maturity in the same classroom. Research indicates that heterogeneous grouping promotes cognitive and social growth, reduces antisocial behavior, and facilitates the use of research-based, developmentally appropriate instructional practices. Because multiage education is unfamiliar to most citizens, it is crucial for these programs to garner parent and community support. This digest summarizes research findings on how schools can create support for multiage education. Topics include the importance of parent and community support, the ways in which multiage practices can be effectively communicated, the ways in which parents and the community can be involved, the obstacles that can hinder meaningful parent involvement, and the ways in which parents and community members can participate in decision making. (LMI)
Descriptors: *Community Support; Elementary Secondary Education; *Information Dissemination; *Mixed Age Grouping; *Nongraded Instructional Grouping; *Parent Participation; Participative Decision Making; Public Support; School Community Relationship; *School Support; Volunteers
Identifiers: ERIC Digests

Journal Articles

EJ563115 PS527827
The Transition from Kindergarten to Ungraded Primary: Longitudinal Predictors of Popularity and Social Reputation.
Lemerise, Elizabeth A.; Harper, Bridgette D.; Howes, Heidi M.
Early Education and Development; v9 n2 p187-201 Apr 1998
Studied the longitudinal stability of measures of peer acceptance, social status, and social reputation and the role of children's ages relative to classmates during the transition from same-age kindergarten to mixed-age ungraded primary classes. Found that overall peer acceptance and aggressive social reputation were moderately stable. Half of the rejected kindergarten children maintained their rejected status in primary school. (Author)
Descriptors: Age Differences; Elementary School Students; *Kindergarten; Longitudinal Studies; Mixed Age Grouping; Multigraded Classes; *Nongraded Instructional Grouping; *Peer Acceptance; Peer Relationship; Popularity; Predictor Variables; Primary Education; Rejection (Psychology); Reliability; *Reputation; *Social Status; Sociometric Techniques; *Student Adjustment
Identifiers: *Relative Age

EJ550544 EA533786
Multiage Misconceptions: Suggestions from Practice.
Lolli, Elizabeth Monce
ERS Spectrum, v15 n3 p14-19 Sum 1997
A former principal of a nongraded elementary school discusses the nongraded, multiage philosophy, effects of multiage grouping, prevalent misconceptions, and suggestions from practice. Critics often mistakenly characterize multiage classrooms as homogeneous, unstructured, and team-taught; appropriate for kindergarten and primary children only; reflective of current age-grouping and grading practices; and easily implemented. (27 references) (MLH)
Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Educational Philosophy; Elementary Education; *Grading; *Misconceptions; *Mixed Age Grouping; *Program Implementation; *Teaching Methods
Identifiers: *Developmentally Appropriate Programs

EJ549495 PS526777
Project Friends: A Multi-Age Learning Community.
Adams, Diane; And Others
Early Childhood Education Journal, v24 n4 p217-21 Sum 1997
Describes Project Friends, a mixed-age classroom of kindergartners, first graders, and second graders, including its beginnings, significant features (such as use of integrated thematic curriculum and "clubs"), and outcomes. Asserts that the program has empowered children for learning and encouraged helping relationships among children. (EV)
Descriptors: Cooperative Learning; *Mixed Age Grouping; *Outcomes of Education; Primary Education; *Program Descriptions; Student Empowerment; Student Participation; Thematic Approach
Identifiers: Learning Communities

Project Approach

ERIC Documents

The Project Approach Catalog 2.
Helm, Judy Harris, Ed.
Available from: ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Children’s Research Center, 51 Gerty Drive, Champaign, IL 61820-7469 (Catalog No. 219, $10, plus $1.50 shipping in U.S.; $3 shipping elsewhere. Payment must be in U.S. funds, payable to the University of Illinois).
Projects are in-depth studies of a topic undertaken by a class, a group, or an individual child. Projects are intended to strengthen children’s dispositions to be interested, absorbed, and involved in in-depth observation, investigation, and representation of worthwhile phenomena in their own environments. This Catalog on the Project Approach, the second of its kind, describes and illustrates 13 projects done by children in early childhood and elementary classrooms on topics such as: trees, paper, playgrounds, building, potatoes, balls, cars, the vet, the hospital, shoes, water, and baby blankets. In addition to the project descriptions, several articles address a variety of issues of common concern to teachers implementing the Project Approach. These include the phases of project work, project topic selection, the value of drawing in projects, introducing investigation skills with a mini-project, involving special needs students in projects, engaged learning and standards of work, and helping students at various levels of professional training to learn how to implement the Project Approach. Sections on research and implementation of the Project Approach in Canada, and on the Internet and the Project Approach (including listserv discussions), are also included. The Catalog’s final section, "Resources for Implementing the Project Approach," includes four ERIC Digests, a glossary, a list of recommended books, an ERIC bibliography on the Project Approach, information on a Project Approach summer institute, and a list of contributors to the Catalog. (EV)
Descriptors: Student Projects; *Teaching Methods; Early Childhood Education; Elementary Education; Freehand Drawing; Teacher Education; Educational Research; Active Learning; *Discovery Learning; Cooperative Learning; Creative Development; Group Activities; Instructional Innovation; *Learning Activities; Problem Solving; Internet; Special Needs Students; Foreign Countries
Identifiers: Project Approach (Katz and Chard); Canada; University of Alberta (Canada)

Rearview Mirror: Reflections on a Preschool Car Project.
Beneke, Sallee
Available from: ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Children’s Research Center, 51 Gerty Drive, Champaign, IL 61820-7469; phone: (877) 275-3227, 217-333-1386; Fax: 217-244-7732 (Catalog No. 220, $10, plus $1.50 shipping in U.S.; $3 shipping outside U.S. Payment must be in U.S. funds. Make checks payable to ‘University of Illinois’).
Document Type: PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141)
This book documents the work of a master preschool teacher, her co-teachers, student teachers, and very young children as they explored the automotive laboratory adjacent to their early childhood classroom at a community college. In addition to introducing the project approach, the master teacher also introduced the staff and students to documentation practices, including systematic curriculum-based assessment through the use of the Work Sampling System. The book’s introduction discusses the challenges and opportunities presented by the location of the early childhood classroom in the college’s Automotive Mechanics Building. The first chapter, "Planning and Anticipating the Car Project," discusses reasons for choosing cars as a project topic, the generation of a topic web, and reasons for using the project approach and the Work Sampling System. The second chapter, "Phase 1: Beginning the Project," describes the early stages of the project and individual children’s experiences starting their exploration of cars. The third chapter, "Phase 2: Building the Car," describes how individual children solved the problems that arose in the course of the project, in addition to discussing various topics, including the challenges presented by the irregular attendance patterns of the children at the center, when to include teacher-initiated activities in project work, and the value of demonstrating a new activity. The fourth chapter, "Phase 3: Sharing and Celebrating Accomplishments," discusses displaying documentation as a record of the project, documenting the project in portfolios, and the final display of the car. The publication concludes with four ERIC digests: (1) "The Project Approach"; (2) "Issues in Selecting Topics for Projects"; (3) "The Contribution of Documentation to the Quality of Early Childhood Education"; and (4) "Performance Assessment in Early Childhood Education: The Work Sampling System." Includes 91 illustrations. (LPP)
Descriptors: *Student Projects; *Class Activities; *Documentation; Learning Activities; Personal Narratives; Preschool Curriculum; Preschool Education; *Early Childhood Education; Experiential Learning; Integrated Curriculum; Teaching Methods; Classroom Techniques; Discovery Learning; Active Learning; Young Children; Teacher Role; Teacher Student Relationship; Problem Solving; Cooperative Learning; *Portfolio Assessment; Curriculum Based Assessment
Identifiers: *Project Approach (Katz and Chard); Project Based Instruction; *Work Sampling System (Meisels)

ED420362 PS025825
The Project Approach: Developing the Basic Framework. Practical Guide 1.
Chard, Sylvia C.
64p.; For "Practical Guide 2" of this series, see PS 025 826.
Available from: Scholastic, Inc., 555 Broadway, New York, NY 10012; phone: 212-343-6100 ($12.95).
Document Not Available from EDRS.
Document Type: TEACHING GUIDE (052)
Geographic Source: Canada, Alberta
This guide is designed to offer teachers and school administrators a rationale for the Project Approach, a description of the practical implications of its implementation, and ways of integrating parts of the approach with other ways of teaching. The guide is divided into two sections. Section 1, "Reviewing Today's Classroom Practices," examines issues as they relate to children and learning. Chapter 1, "The Learner," gives an account of children's learning that can form a useful basis for planning and evaluating progress. Chapter 2, "The Instruction," presents effective teaching and classroom management techniques, and Chapter 3, "The Learning Environment," examines the teacher's role in managing an environment where a variety of different activities are in progress. Chapter 4, "The Content," offers a detailed comparison between topics and themes, units and projects, and a step-by-step approach to creating a project topic with children. Section 2 details "Understanding the Project Approach." Chapter 5, "Phases of Project Work," provides a walk-through of the three phases (getting started, fieldwork, culminating event), with an outline of what each phase has to offer and how they differ from one another. Chapter 6, "Children's Work: Processes and Products," gives a detailed description of children at work on projects. Chapter 7, "Evaluation and Assessment," makes a distinction between the kinds of learning that can be assessed in the different parts of the programs, and chapter 8, "The Roles of Teachers, Students, and Parents," looks at how parents can be better informed about their children's learning and more involved in their progress both in school and at home. (EV)
Descriptors: Classroom Environment; Classroom Techniques; Elementary Education; Foreign Countries; Learning Processes; Parent Participation; Student Evaluation; *Student Projects; Teaching Guides; Teaching Methods
Identifiers: *Project Approach (Katz and Chard)

ED420363 PS025826
The Project Approach: Developing Curriculum with Children. Practical Guide 2.
Chard, Sylvia C.
64p.; For "Practical Guide 1" of this series, see PS 025 825.
Available from: Scholastic, Inc., 555 Broadway, New York, NY 10012; phone: 212-343-6100 ($12.95). Document Not Available from EDRS.
Document Type: TEACHING GUIDE (052)
Geographic Source: Canada; Alberta
This guide, a complement to "Project Approach: Developing the Basic Framework," was written to clarify particular structural features of good project work. The guide's introduction provides background information on the philosophy and methods of the Project Approach. The core of the book is divided into four parts. The first three parts each cover one of the phases of the Project Approach: getting started, fieldwork, and culminating event. Each of these parts is organized according to the five structural features of the approach (discussions, fieldwork, representation, investigation, display). Also common to all three parts is the incorporation of case study examples. The parts are: (1) "Getting Started (Phase 1)," which discusses preparation for the project and design and planning work; (2) "Developing the Project Work (Phase 2)," which discusses conducting fieldwork and implementation and development work; and (3) "Concluding the Project (Phase 3)," which discusses debriefing the learning and reviewing and sharing. The fourth part of the guide explores "Classroom Organization and Management." (EV)
Descriptors: Classroom Environment; Classroom Techniques; Curriculum Design; *Curriculum Development; Early Childhood Education; Elementary
Education; Foreign Countries; *Student Centered Curriculum; *Student Projects; Teaching Guides; Teaching Methods
Identifiers: *Project Approach (Katz and Chard)

ED413036 PS023951
Bringing Reggio Emilia Home: An Innovative Approach to Early Childhood Education.
Cadwell, Louise Boyd
160p.; Foreword by Lella Gandini.
ISBN: 0-8077-3660-0; 0-8077-3661-9
Available From: Teacher's College Press, 1234 Amsterdam Avenue, New York, NY 10027; phone: 800-575-6566 (Cloth: ISBN-0-8077-3661-9, $43; Paper: ISBN-0-8077-3660-0, $19.95).
Document Not Available from EDRS.
Geographic Source: U.S.; New York
Journal Announcement: RIEMAR98
This book is a collection of stories describing the Reggio Emilia approach to early childhood education, based on the author's internship in the Italian preschools and a 4-year adaptation effort in one American school. The book's prologue describes the author's work before using the Reggio Emilia approach, the history of Reggio Emilia, the fundamentals of the approach, and the College School of Webster Groves, Missouri where the approach was adapted to a U.S. setting. Chapter 1, "The Journey," details the initial exposure to the Reggio approach, securing an internship, and typical days in the Diana School in Italy. Chapter 2, "The Pleasures and Power of Playing with Materials," discusses the variety of materials available to students and tells stories describing projects children use to build an expanding awareness and understanding of the natural world. Chapter 3, "The Children and the Trees," describes how Reggio Emilia educators define and develop projects, and conveys the story of the children's study of trees and plants. Chapter 4, "Returning Home to St. Louis," describes the move to St. Louis to adapt the Reggio Approach for use in the College School, the importance of spoken language and conversations with children, and the use of visual arts. Chapter 5, "Transforming Space, Time, and Relations," deals with structural and other changes in the preschool space and working with colleagues and parents. Chapter 6, "The Children and the Garden," describes a project on plants which extended from preschool through kindergarten, conversations around the project and grow table designs, children's journals, and sculptures. (Contains 46 references.) (KB)
Descriptors: Childrens Art; Childrens Writing; Classroom Design; *Early Childhood Education; Educational Environment; *Educational Innovation; Foreign Countries; Instructional Materials; Journal Writing; Language Skills; Learning Activities; Personal Narratives; Plants (Botany); Teacher Student Relationship; *Teaching Methods; Visual Arts; Young Children
Identifiers: Italy (Reggio Emilia); Project Approach (Katz and Chard); *Reggio Emilia Approach

ED393608 PS024196
The Contribution of Documentation to the Quality of Early Childhood Education. ERIC Digest.
Katz, Lilian G.; Chard, Sylvia C.
ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, Ill.
Apr 1996
Sponsoring Agency: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Contract No: RR93002007
Report No: EDO-PS-96-2
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Document Type: ERIC PRODUCT (071); ERIC DIGESTS (SELECTED) (073)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEAUG96
Documentation, in the forms of observation of children and record keeping, has long been practiced in many early childhood programs, particularly in the preschools of Reggio Emilia, Italy. Documentation typically includes samples of children's work at several stages of completion; photographs showing work in progress; comments by teachers working with the children; transcriptions of children's discussions; and parents' comments. High-quality documentation of children's work contributes to the quality of early childhood programs in at least six ways. First, documentation enhances children's learning. The processes of preparing and displaying documentaries of children's efforts provides a kind of re-visiting of experience during which new understandings are clarified and strengthened. Second, careful and attractive documentary displays convey to children that their efforts are taken seriously. Third, documentation encourages continuous teacher planning and evaluation of work with children. When teachers and children plan together, activities are likely to be undertaken with greater interest and representational skill than when children plan alone or when teachers are unaware of challenges facing the children. Fourth, documentation fosters parent appreciation and participation. Through learning about the work in which their children are engaged, parents may contribute ideas for activities to teachers and their own time in the classroom. Fifth, teacher research and process awareness is fostered by documentation. As teachers examine and document children's work, their understanding of children's development is deepened in ways not likely to occur from inspecting test results. Sixth, children's learning is made visible through documentation, which provides information about children's progress that cannot be obtained from standardized tests. When children are engaged in absorbing and complex projects, documentation can make a contribution in these six ways. (BC)
Descriptors: Classroom Techniques; Early Childhood Education; Parent Participation; *Portfolio Assessment; Preschool Children; *Student Projects; *Teacher Student Relationship
Identifiers: *Project Approach (Katz and Chard); Reggio Emilia Approach

Journal Articles

EJ554424 PS527241
The Project Approach in Inclusive Preschool Classrooms.
Greenwald, Carol; Hand, Jennifer
Dimensions of Early Childhood, v25 n4 p35-39 Fall 1997
ISSN: 1068-6177
Journal Announcement: CIJAPR98
Describes a program for a project approach in inclusive classrooms which balances the needs of children with and without developmental delays and provides effective and efficient learning. Provides guidance in choosing the project topic, introducing ideas, implementing project activities, completing the project, and evaluating the experience. (SD)
Descriptors: Child Development; *Class Activities; Developmental Delays; Developmental Disabilities; Disabilities; *Inclusive Schools; Mainstreaming; Normalization (Disabilities); *Preschool Education; *Regular and Special Education Relationship; Special Education; Special Needs Students; *Student Projects
Identifiers: *Project Approach (Katz and Chard)

EJ547961 PS526717
The Fiber Project: One Teacher's Adventure toward Emergent Curriculum.
Booth, Cleta
Young Children, v52 n5 p79-85 Jul 1997
ISSN: 0044-0728
Journal Announcement: CIJDEC97
Describes a preschool classroom project intended to explore cotton and wool production. Describes the planning process, project implementation and evaluation, collaboration with other teachers, additional fiber-related center activities, and how the project provided opportunities for work in many curriculum areas. The fabric project concluded with the creation of a class quilt. (KB)
Descriptors: Class Activities; Learning Activities; *Personal Narratives; Preschool Curriculum; Preschool Education
Identifiers: Cotton Production; *Emergent Curriculum; *Project Approach (Katz and Chard); Textile Fibers; Webbing (Thematic); Wool

EJ538098 PS525986
A Multicultural Family Project for Primary.
Gutwirth, Valerie
Young Children, v52 n2 p72-78 Jan 1997
ISSN: 0044-0728
Journal Announcement: CIJJUN97
Suggests that teachers can work with children's families to study likenesses and differences in their respective cultures. Details a class project for 7- to 8-year-olds whereby children start with self-portraits and construct masks of their faces. Provides sample mask project timeline and steps for making masks out of paper molds and a shredded-paper-and-glue medium. (AMC)
Descriptors: *Art Activities; Art Expression; Art Materials; *Childrens Art; Classroom Techniques; *Cultural Awareness; *Cultural Differences; Early Childhood Education; Elementary School Students; Family Characteristics; *Multicultural Education; *Parent Teacher Cooperation; Teaching Methods
Identifiers: *Family Activities; Project Approach (Katz and Chard)

EJ533095 PS525779
To Build a House: Designing Curriculum for Primary-Grade Children.
Harris, Teresa T.; Fuqua, J. Diane
Young Children, v52 n1 p77-83 Nov 1996
ISSN: 0044-0728
Document Type: TEACHING GUIDE (052); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJMAR97
Presents a social studies unit on house building for 5- to 7-year olds. Discusses rationale for the project approach and outlines unit components. Describes the three components of the curriculum planning strategy: (1) impression activities; (2) extension activities; and (3) expression activities. Discusses experiences during unit implementation and assessment through observation of children's behaviors and products. (KDFB)
Descriptors: Childrens Literature; Class Activities; Curriculum Development; Elementary School Curriculum; *Housing; Housing Industry; Observation; Primary Education; Program Evaluation; Self Expression; *Social Studies; Units of Study; *Young Children
Identifiers: Anecdotal Records; Project Approach (Katz and Chard); Representational Thinking; Symbolic Thinking

Distance Education

ERIC Documents

ED417880 RC021434
Coming Together: Preparing for Rural Special Education in the 21st Century. Conference Proceedings of the American Council on Rural Special Education (18th, Charleston, South Carolina, March 25-28, 1998).
Montgomery, Diane, Ed.
American Council on Rural Special Education.
411p.; For selected individual papers, see RC 021 435-472.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC17 Plus Postage.
Geographic Source: U.S.; Oklahoma
This proceedings contains 64 papers on rural special education. Papers present promising practices in rural special education, discussions of theory and research, research findings, program descriptions, and topics of current concern. The papers are organized in order of presentation, and are categorized in a topical index under the following subjects: at-risk students, collaborative education, deaf education, early childhood, leadership and policy issues, multicultural concerns (including Native American programs), parents and families, professional development (preservice and inservice), professional publication, technology, and transition. (SV)
Descriptors: Computer Assisted Instruction; *Disabilities; Distance Education; Early Childhood Education; Educational Cooperation; Educational Practices; *Educational Strategies; Elementary Secondary Education; Higher Education; Mainstreaming; Minority Groups; Parent Participation; Professional Development; Regular and Special Education Relationship; *Rural Education; Rural Schools; *Special Education; Special Education Teachers; *Teacher Collaboration; *Teacher Education; Transitional Programs

ED417702 IR018769
Information Technology in Education and Training (IT@EDU98). Proceedings of a Conference (Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, January 15-16, 1998).
Hoang, Kiem, Ed.; Tran, Van Hao, Ed.; Luu, Tien Hiep, Ed.; Phan, Viet Hoang, Ed.; Owens, Thomas, Ed.; Nguyen, Son Thanh, Ed.; Vuong, Son Thanh, Ed.; Dong Thi, Bich Thuy, Ed.; Phan Thi, Tuoi, Ed.
Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.
238p.; The six conference sessions, each involving 4-6 papers, have been separately analyzed; see IR 018 770-775.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC10 Plus Postage.
Geographic Source: U.S.; Oregon
This proceedings volume includes the following 29 papers: Session 1--(1) "Technology for Learning: The Present and Future in the United States" (Thomas Owens, Carolyn Cohen); (2) "Computer Systems Technology Programs at the British Columbia Institute of Technology (Canada). A Technology-Based Model for Information Technology" (Ken Takagaki); (3) "The University Level Training Program of the Information Technology" (Phan Dinh Dieu); (4) "Using the World Wide Web in Education and Training" (James Kow Kim Song); Session 2--(5) "Multimedia Education" (Tran Van Hao, Ngo Huy Hoang); (6) "Educational Multimedia in a Networked Technology" (Antony Bates); (7) "Production of Interactive Multimedia Packages" (Tran Minh Phuong); (8) "Digital Signal Processing Applied in Multimedia" (Tran Cong Toai, Tran Hoang Buu, Dang Xuan Hieu); Session 3--(9) "Courseware Engineering" (Nguyen Thanh Son, Ngo Ngoc Bao Tran, Quan Thanh Tho, Nguyen Hong Lam); (10) "Machine Discovery Theorems in Geometry: A Helpful Tool in Teaching Geometry" (Hoang Kiem, Vu Thien Can); (11) "Model of Problems in Analytic Geometry and Automatically Solving" (Do Van Nhon); (12) "Heuristic Based Scheduling in High School" (Nguyen Duc Thang); (13) "A Model of Knowledge of Analytic Geometry" (Do Van Nhon); Session 4--(14) "Impacts of Information Technology in Education and Training" (Vuong Thanh Son); (15) "Management Changes in the Information Age" (Pattrick Tantribeau); (16) "Restructuring the University for Technology Change" (Antony Bates); (17) "Interactive Multimedia Technology Contributing in Solving the Problem of National Education" (Tran Ha Nam); (18) "Information Technology Will Transform the University" (Wm. A. Wulf); Session 5--(19) "Distance Education at University of Hawaii" (David Lassner); (20) "An Approach to Distance Education by Using Network Technology" (Dam Quang Hong Hai); (21) "About the Ways To Solve Shortage of IP Address" (Phan Cong Vinh); (22) "Introduction to a Very Large Database" (Do Hoang Cuong); Session 6--(23) "Knowledge Based Approach for English Vietnamese Machine Translation" (Hoang Kiem, Dinh Dien); (24) "A Learning Algorithm for Feature Selection Based on Genetic Algorithms Approach" (Nguyen Dinh Thuc, Le Hoai Bac); (25) "Artificial Neural Network for Color Classification" (Tran Cong Toai); (26) "Synthesizing and Recognizing Vietnamese Speech" (Hoang Kiem, Nguyen Minh Triet, Vo Tuan Kiet, Luu Duc Hien, Bui Tien Leu); (27) "On-line Character Recognition" (Nguyen Thanh Phuong); (28) "Data Mining and Knowledge Acquisition from a Database" (Hoang Kiem, Do Phuc); and (29) "Genetic Algorithm for Initiative of Neural Networks" (Nguyen Dinh Thuc, Tan Quang Sang, Le Ha Thanh, Nguyen Thanh Son). (SWC)
Descriptors: *Computer Networks; Computer Software; Courseware; Distance Education; *Educational Technology; Elementary Secondary Education; Foreign Countries; Higher Education; *Information Technology; Mathematics; Microcomputers; Multimedia Instruction; Training; World Wide Web
Identifiers: Vietnam

ED417690 HE031149
Completing Graduate School Long Distance. Graduate Survival Skills Series.
Hammon, Darrel L.; Albiston, Steven K.
ISBN: 0-7619-0486-7
Available From: Sage Publications; 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320; phone: 805-499-0721; fax: 805-499-0871; e-mail: order@sagepub.com (cloth: ISBN-0-7619-0485-9; paperback: ISBN-0-7619-0486-7, $21).
Document Not Available from EDRS.
Document Type: BOOK (010); INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL (051)
Geographic Source: U.S.; California
Target Audience: Students
This book, intended for students planning, exploring, or currently completing graduate school via long distance, is written by two people who themselves completed a doctoral program via long distance. The book is based on personal experiences, an informal survey of people in this country and abroad, and responses from a listserv concerning distance education. After an introductory chapter which explains the reason for the book and provides a glossary, the major chapters address the following topics: (1) an overview of long distance learning graduate programs; (2) identifying an appropriate institution; (3) the application process; (4) arranging one's life and negotiating time; (5) selecting a graduate committee long distance; (6) developing support groups or cohort groups; (7) reviewing literature long distance without local resources; and (8) meeting requirements and graduation. The next chapter offers the perspectives of professors of distance learning who respond to questions concerning: preparation time for distance courses, characteristics of distance students, use of e-mail and the Internet, and the future of distance education. A final chapter offers conclusions, recommendations, and reflections. Appended are lists of graduate schools that offer distance education graduate programs in the United States and worldwide. (Contains 12 references.) (DB)
Descriptors: Access to Education; Degrees (Academic); *Distance Education; Extension Education; External Degree Programs; *Graduate Study; Higher Education; Home Study; Independent Study; Nontraditional Education; Self Management

ED417617 HE031046
Distance Education in Higher Education Institutions: Incidence, Audiences, and Plans To Expand. Issue Brief.
Greene, Bernard; Meek, Anne
National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.
Report No: NCES-98-132
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Geographic Source: U.S.; District of Columbia
Government: Federal
A national survey of distance education courses offered by higher education institutions identified the incidence of distance education courses delivered to remote (off-campus) locations through audio, video, or computer technologies. The study found that a third of institutions offered distance education courses, another quarter planned to offer such courses in the next 3 years, and 42 percent did not offer, and did not plan to offer, such courses in the next 3 years. A much greater percentage of public than private institutions offered distance education courses. Distance education offerings varied by school size and location: fewer small institutions and fewer institutions in the Northeast offered distance education. In academic year 1994-95, an estimated 25,730 distance education courses with different catalog numbers were offered by higher education institutions, and there were about 758,640 students formally enrolled in distance education courses in that year. Additional findings reported cover: the percentage of public and private two- and four-year colleges offering distance education courses; number of institutions offering or planning to offer distance education by geographic region, enrollment size, and type of institution; and percentage of colleges using different types of technology. (SW)
Descriptors: *Audiovisual Communications; *Computer Oriented Programs; *Distance Education; *Educational Technology; Geographic Regions; Higher Education; Institutional Characteristics; *Interactive Video; Media Selection; *National Surveys; Private Colleges; State Colleges; Student Characteristics; Trend Analysis

ED417436 CS509774
Teaching from a Distance: "Hello, Is Anyone Out There?"
Mottet, Timothy P.
25p.; Paper presented at the Annual Ethnography in Research Forum (19th, Philadelphia, PA, March 6, 1998).
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Geographic Source: U.S.; Texas
This small, qualitative study examined how interactive television educators go about teaching in electronically-mediated environments where students remain separated from them. Three interactive television instructors were interviewed, and 15 hours of field observation was conducted. Although the study's original goal was to yield prescriptions for how to teach in the interactive television classroom, three broad categories of limitations emerged. The first limitation was lack of spontaneity. Interactive television teaching tends to remain scripted and "canned." Depending on the delivery system used to transmit the class, instructors interviewed for this study found it difficult to spontaneously interject without disrupting the communication process. The second limitation was lack of relationship satisfaction. Instructors found it difficult to cultivate the intimacy found in traditional face-to-face classrooms. It was suggested that technology prevents students from seeing teachers at their best. The third limitation was lack of interaction. All the instructors struggled with lack of student responsiveness and interaction. "Hello, is anyone out there" was a common expression of the three instructors observed for the study. To overcome these limitations, findings suggest that spontaneous interaction can be more easily obtained by use of computers; that some face-to-face meetings should be built into the class schedule; and that a tenured distance learner be assigned to each remote location to serve as interaction coordinator and spokesperson for that site. (Contains two references.) (Author/CR)
Descriptors: *Classroom Environment; Classroom Techniques; *Distance Education; Electronic Classrooms; Ethnography; Higher Education; *Interactive Television; Qualitative Research; *Teacher Student Relationship; *Telecourses; *Television Teachers
Identifiers: Teaching Research; Technology Integration; *Televised Interactive Education System

ED416933 JC980136
Policy for Delivering Degree Programs through Distance Education Technology.
Indiana State Commission for Higher Education, Indianapolis.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Document Type: LEGAL MATERIAL (090)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Indiana
Government: State
This Commission for Higher Education document concerns the approval of the Policy for Delivering Degree Programs Through Distance Education Technology. It opens with the staff recommendation that the Commission approve the Policy, considering the recent technological developments altering distance education environments. The background information section details how both "producers" and "consumers" of instruction are affected by these changes. Campuses are now in positions to offer quality distance education in a cost-effective manner, and a growing number of institutions are providing such services. Students are, in turn, increasingly utilizing distance education because of its improved flexibility and wider range of instructional offerings. The policy in consideration aims to encourage institutions to increase degree opportunities through distance education by streamlining the review process, while at the same time fulfilling the Commission's statutory responsibilities. Included in the document are a copy of the Policy and Guidelines for Distance Education taken from the North Central Association Commission on Institutions of Higher Education. (YKH)
Descriptors: Degrees (Academic); *Distance Education; *Educational Policy; Educational Technology; *External Degree Programs; Higher Education; Instructional Design; Nontraditional Education; Policy Analysis; School Policy; School Role; Special Degree Programs; Technological Advancement

Journal Articles

EJ559837 IR536660
Effective Distance Education Planning: Lessons Learned.
Willis, Barry, Ed.
Educational Technology, v38 n1 p57-59 Jan-Feb 1998
Presents guidelines for effective distance education planning that confront the issues of planning/organization, technology, and faculty development/academic policies. Concludes that understanding the unique characteristics and constraints of any particular program or target audience is the first step in selecting appropriate distance education practices. (AEF)
Descriptors: Computer Assisted Instruction; *Distance Education; Educational Development; *Educational Planning; Educational Practices; Educational Technology; Faculty Development; Guidelines; Instructional Design; Nontraditional Education; Program Development; *Strategic Planning

EJ559771 IR536594
Sociology: The Internet as an Extended Classroom.
Schneider, Andreas
Social Science Computer Review, v16 n1 p53-57 Spr 1998
The implementation of an electronic syllabus on the World Wide Web is described. Web pages serve as administrative tools, as powerful research instruments, and as a tool skill to prepare students for their careers. The empirical example of an electronic syllabus is used to illuminate potentials, problems, and the acceptance of the Internet as an extended sociology classroom by students. (Author/AEF)
Descriptors: Career Development; Computer Uses in Education; *Course Descriptions; Course Evaluation; Distance Education; Educational Technology; Higher Education; Instructional Innovation; Instructional Materials; *Internet; Online Systems; *Sociology; Student Research; Teaching Methods
Identifiers: Electronic Resources; *Web Pages

EJ559696 HE537822
Western Governors U. Takes Shape as a New Model for Higher Education.
Blumenstyk, Goldie
Chronicle of Higher Education, v44 n22 pA21-A24 Feb 6 1998
Backers of Western Governors University hope it will revolutionize the ways colleges compete for students, professors teach, and education is measured, and believe the virtual university can help contain the costs of educating growing numbers of students in the 16 participating states. However, the administration faces challenges in areas of accreditation, faculty, eligibility for student aid, and curriculum. (MSE)
Descriptors: *Accreditation (Institutions); Change Strategies; College Administration; College Curriculum; College Faculty; *Consortia; *Distance Education; Educational Change; Higher Education; Innovation; *Intercollegiate Cooperation; Program Descriptions; *Regional Planning; Student Financial Aid
Identifiers: *Virtual Universities; *Western Governors University

EJ559177 CE532242
Regional Extension In-Service Training via the Internet.
Lippert, Robert M.; Plank, Owen; Camberato, Jim; Chastain, John
Journal of Extension, v36 n1 Feb 1998
In South Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama, 32 extension agents used inservice training materials on the World Wide Web and engaged in discussions via a listserv. Postprogram responses from 16 were strongly favorable of this type of training for certain topics. (SK)
Descriptors: *Distance Education; *Extension Agents; Extension Education; *Inservice Education; Regional Programs; World Wide Web

EJ559162 CE532227
Online Learning. Special Report.
Training, v35 n2 pOL1-OL22 Feb 1998
Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Special section includes "World Wide Weeds" (Ann M. Bauer), about trainers as webmasters; "Get the Picture?" (Frank Jossi)--the role of digital video in computer-based training; and "The Reluctant Executive" (Anne K. Fredrickson), how to get administrators into the information age. (JOW)
Descriptors: *Administrators; Adult Education; Distance Education; *Optical Data Disks; Program Effectiveness; *Technological Advancement; *Training Methods; Work Environment; *World Wide Web

EJ558360 HE537717
The Internet as a Virtual Learning Community.
McLellan, Hilary
Journal of Computing in Higher Education, v9 n2 p92-112 Spr 1998
Describes one Internet-based model for implementing university classes that uses listservs, electronic mail, and the World Wide Web. Compares Internet and conventional classes; looks at the potential of both asynchronous and synchronous virtual learning experiences and activities. Argues that an Internet-based virtual learning community, with its dynamic interactions between students and teachers, is a powerful approach to distance education. (Author/MSE)
Descriptors: Class Activities; College Students; Computer Uses in Education; *Distance Education; *Educational Environment; Electronic Mail; Group Dynamics; Higher Education; *Internet; Student Attitudes; Teacher Student Relationship; *World Wide Web
Identifiers: *Learning Communities; Listservs

Professional Development Schools

ERIC Documents

ED418077 SP037868
Action Research in Professional Development Schools: Effects on Student Learning.
Devlin-Scherer, Wade; Spinelli, Ann Marie; Giammatteo, Dawn; Johnson, Craig; Mayo-Molina, Sylvia; McGinley, Paula; Michalski, Candice; Schmidek, Susan; Tomaiuolo, Linda; Zisk, Laurie
32p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education (50th, New Orleans, LA, February 25-28, 1998).
EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Geographic Source: U.S.; Connecticut
This report presents data from one elementary school's (Hartford, CT region) second year (1996-97) implementation of a mathematics reform action research project by the professional development team. Teachers from grades 2-5 systematically implemented an ancillary problem solving curriculum in their classrooms after receiving training by a university facilitator and attending a summer institute. The team met biweekly to support full implementation of the research plan and data collection. Implementation of the ancillary mathematics program began in fall 1996 and continued through June 1997. A matched pairs strategy was employed to allow for year-to-year control group comparisons. Intervention group students in grades 2-5 learned and practiced 10 problem solving strategies throughout the year. Teachers, in consultation with university faculty, increased the use of problem solving activities over 2 years using multiple strategies. Holistic and standardized assessment determined the overall effects of using action research to improve student mathematics learning. Treatment classes completed a pretest and posttest, a whole-class selected problem test, and student interviews. Students in control and treatment groups completed two sets of standardized measures in 1996 and 1 year later. Results indicated that during the second implementation year, most students successfully learned the selected strategies. However, when comparing them with matched controls on standardized measures, there was no difference between groups. (Contains 30 references and 4 tables.) (SM)
Descriptors: *Action Research; *College School Cooperation; Elementary Education; Elementary School Mathematics; Elementary School Students; Elementary School Teachers; Higher Education; Mathematics Achievement; *Mathematics Instruction; *Partnerships in Education; Preservice Teacher Education; Problem Solving; *Professional Development Schools; Teacher Researchers
Identifiers: Connecticut

ED417887 RC021441
Teacher Education Partnerships at Valley High School.
Rude, Harvey; Dickinson, Barbara; Weiser, Jerry
9p.; In: Coming Together: Preparing for Rural Special Education in the 21st Century. Conference Proceedings of the American Council on Rural Special Education (18th, Charleston, SC, March 25-28, 1998); see RC 021 434.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Geographic Source: U.S.; Colorado
This paper examines the efforts of a university teacher preparation program working in collaboration with the faculty of a rural high school to provide a professional development model of preparing future teachers. The key elements of the partnership model are based on Goodlad's four functions of partner schools: preparing educators, providing professional development, conducting inquiry, and providing an exemplary education to all students. Valley High School (Colorado) is one of five partner high schools that have affiliated with the University of Northern Colorado's Secondary Teacher Education Program (STEP). This paper describes the following aspects of STEP: (1) formation and development of the university-school partnership, including planning and state support; (2) program design in four phases, ranging from exploration of teaching and foundational issues to full-time student teaching; (3) expectations for competence in special education in each of the four phases; (4) incentives for partnership participation, such as funds for teacher or substitute teacher compensation, service to the partner school by teacher candidates, and professional development opportunities; and (5) present challenges and future opportunities related to needs for shared vision, strong leadership, balance of bottom-up and top-down support, ongoing program development, and accountability measures and systems. (SV)
Descriptors: *College School Cooperation; High Schools; Higher Education; Incentives; *Professional Development Schools; *Program Design; *Program Development; Rural Schools; Special Education; *Teacher Education Programs
Identifiers: University of Northern Colorado

ED415226 SP037742
Professional Development Schools: Weighing the Evidence.
Abdal-Haqq, Ismat
American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, Washington, DC.
ISBN: 0-8039-6350-5
Available From: Corwin Press, Inc. A Sage Publications Company, 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320-2218.
EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
Geographic Source: U.S.; District of Columbia
This book examines U.S. progress in revitalizing teacher education and reforming K-12 education via Professional Development Schools (PDS's). The book discusses whether PDS's are: improving K-12 curriculum and instruction through faculty development; making substantive, positive differences in students' learning levels; addressing the needs of marginalized or vulnerable learners; merging with other reform initiatives; and meeting time and financing challenges. Data come from mainstream and fugitive sources, including student interviews and followup studies with teacher education graduates; surveys with preservice teachers on attitudes, beliefs, and self-efficacy; and reviews in student journals. Chapter 1 examines features and practices characterizing initial teacher preparation and professional development for teachers in PDS's, considering the impact of teacher development on participants. Chapter 2 examines activities, characteristics, and outcomes of PDS programming that target student achievement, discussing inquiry in PDS's and inquiry about PDS effectiveness. After summarizing major concepts that define teaching and learning in PDS's, the chapter describes programs that attempt to implement practices reflecting these concepts and themes. Chapter 3 examines problems of time and financing in PDS's, exploring additional fiscal and human resources necessary to start up and sustain them. Chapter 4 summarizes the benefits of parent involvement, integrated services, and technology infusion, examining the extent to which PDS programming incorporates them. Chapter 5 describes the extent to which equity of diversity-related programming and practices in PDS's reflects unequal power relationships between and within schools and universities and between historically dominated groups and schools, universities, and society. (Contains 149 references.) (SM)
Descriptors: Academic Achievement; *College School Cooperation; Computer Assisted Instruction; Diversity (Student); Educational Change; Educational Finance; Educational Technology; Elementary School Students; Elementary School Teachers; Elementary Secondary Education; Equal Education; Faculty Development; Higher Education; Inservice Teacher Education; Integrated Services; Parent Participation; Parent School Relationship; *Partnerships in Education; Preservice Teacher Education; *Professional Development Schools; Program Development; Secondary School Students; Secondary School Teachers; Teacher Improvement; Time

ED417154 SP037799
Resources on Professional Development Schools. An Annotated Bibliography and Resource Guide. Second Edition.
Abdal-Haqq, Ismat, Comp.
Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse on Clinical Schools, Washington, DC.; ERIC Clearinghouse on Teaching and Teacher Education, Washington, DC.
81p.; For the earlier edition, see ED 359 177.
ISBN: 0-89333-158-9
Available From: AACTE Publications, 1307 New York Ave., N.W., Suite 300, Washington, DC 20005-4701; phone: 202-293-2450; fax: 202-457-8095; World Wide Web: www.aacte.org ($18 plus $5 shipping and handling).
EDRS Price - MF01/PC04 Plus Postage.
Document Type: ERIC PRODUCT (071); BIBLIOGRAPHY (131)
Geographic Source: U.S.; District of Columbia
This second edition of an annotated bibliography and resource guide on professional development schools (PDS) provides information to facilitate the location of sources of information regarding professional development schools. The publication contains 153 annotations, only one of which was included in the first edition. Most of the resources were published or produced between the years 1993 and 1997. The three main sections present annotated listings that are alphabetized by their authors. There are six appendixes that offer information on the following: (1) Internet resources, (2) newsletters and other periodicals, (3) videotapes, (4) networks and information centers, (5) Clinical Schools Clearinghouse and Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse on Clinical Schools, and (6) PDS publications from the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, ERIC Clearinghouse on Teaching and Teacher Education, Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse on Clinical Schools. (Contains 9 references.) (SM)
Descriptors: *College School Cooperation; Elementary Secondary Education; Faculty Development; Higher Education; *Partnerships in Education; Preservice Teacher Education; *Professional Development Schools; Student Teachers; Student Teaching; Teacher Improvement

ED416176 SP037651
Contradictions in Collaboration: New Thinking on School/University Partnerships.
Johnston, Marilyn A.
182p.; Prepared "with the Educators for Collaborative Change." Foreword by Maxine Greene.
ISBN: 0-8077-3656-2
Available From: Teachers College Press, 1234 Amsterdam Avenue, New York, NY 10027 (hardback: ISBN-0-8077-3657-0; paperback: ISBN-0-8077-3656-2).
Document Not Available from EDRS.
Document Type: BOOK (010); NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
Geographic Source: U.S.; New York
Target Audience: Administrators; Practitioners; Teachers
This book is based on a 6-year longitudinal study of collaboration in a professional development school (PDS) project involving 45 educators. Teachers and principals from the schools and faculty and doctoral students from the university work together to plan, implement, and evaluate a Master's of Education program. Part 1: "Issues and Challenges of Collaboration" includes seven chapters entitled: (1) "Keeping Differences in Tensions through Dialogue" (Marilyn Johnston and J. Michael Thomas); (2) "One Telling of Our History" (Marilyn Johnston); (3) "Our First Presentation: An Exhilarating Success and a Lingering Tension" (Marilyn Johnston with PDS Participants); (4) "Rethinking Our Roles" (Richard M. Kerper and Marilyn Johnston); (5) "African American Perspectives on Collaboration" (Daa'iyah Saleem and Cynthia Tyson); (6) "School-Based Voices and Stories" (Kathleen Ibom); and (7) "Theorizing Collaboration: Some Theoretical and Methodological Issues" (Marilyn Johnston). Brief sections entitled "Interlude with Metaphor" are located in between these chapters. Part 2: "Case Studies" includes two chapters entitled: (8) "The Beginnings of Collaboration at Second Avenue Elementary" (Reba Bricher, Mary Christenson, Marilyn Hawk, and Jean Tingley, with Brenda Ambrose, Amy Campbell, Lisa Cline, and Bill Lohr); and (9) "A Case Study of Collaboration at Worthington Estates Elementary" (Tom Adams, Rosario Galarza, Kathy Nalle, and Lisa Westhoven, with Kathy Barkhurst, Kathy Davenport, and Sue Knuebel. (Contains an appendix with list of PDS Publications and Conference Presentations, an index, and 86 references.) (LH)
Descriptors: Blacks; Case Studies; College Faculty; *College School Cooperation; *Educational Cooperation; Elementary Secondary Education; Graduate Students; Higher Education; Individual Differences; *Partnerships in Education; Personal Narratives; Principals; Professional Development Schools; Schools; *Teacher Collaboration; Teachers; *Universities

ED415233 SP037750
Collaborative Agenda for Change: Examining the Impact of Urban Professional Development Schools.
Fountain, Cheryl Ann
81p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education (Phoenix, AZ, February 27, 1997).
EDRS Price - MF01/PC04 Plus Postage.
Document Type: CONFERENCE PAPER (150)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Florida
This paper describes the evolution of a Professional Development School (PDS) continuum for urban teachers through 5 years of school-university collaboration. The paper reports the impact on education students completing internship experiences at urban PDS's, discusses the impact of the collaborative initiative on PDS faculty, and identifies implications at the district and university levels. For several years, the Duval County Schools and the University of North Florida College of Education have collaboratively engaged in reform initiatives targeting urban schooling and preparation of urban teachers. Two of the most recent initiatives are the AT&T Teachers for Tomorrow Project and the Jacksonville Urban Educational Partnership (JUEP). Creating urban PDS's served as the central focus of the projects. Surveys of AT&T and JUEP interns, non-interns, and experienced teachers examined planning, instruction, time management, student diversity, reflective thought, collegiality, beliefs about urban schools, efficacy, and accepting positions in different kinds of school settings. Results indicated that the PDS experience positively affected both groups of PDS interns' confidence levels for teaching in urban schools. The increased confidence led to large numbers of PDS interns actively seeking positions in urban schools. Most PDS interns considered the experience worthwhile. Five appendixes offer data from surveys of interns, teachers, and schools. (Contains approximately 70 references.) (SM)
Descriptors: *College School Cooperation; Elementary Secondary Education; Field Experience Programs; Higher Education; Partnerships in Education; Preservice Teacher Education; *Professional Development Schools; Student Teacher Attitudes; Student Teaching; *Urban Schools; *Urban Teaching
Identifiers: Florida

ED411211 SP037494
Professional Development Schools/School-University Partnerships: A Review of the Literature (1990-1996).
Moguel, David L.
37p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, March 24-28, 1997).
EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Geographic Source: U.S.; California
This literature review discusses four aspects of professional development schools (PDSs) that either arose with great frequency in the literature or that seemed to be most relevant to the partnership between the Santa Monica-Malibu Unified School District and the University of California, Los Angeles. The four aspects are collaboration, teacher training, funding, and evaluation. Over 100 books and articles having PDSs as their main topic were examined. This paper is in six sections. The first section introduces the methodology and terminology. Section 2 examines collaboration, including the problems and pitfalls (priorities, status of PDS activities, calendars, and uses of time) and rewards and coping strategies (research and teaching, changing roles, and time and compensation). Section 3 explores teacher training, including mentoring, isolation and status, new teachers' contributions, diversity in selection and placement, and improving teacher training. Section 4 looks at funding; section 5 covers evaluation, including examples. Section 6 reports on upcoming publications. (Contains 100 references.) (ND)
Descriptors: *College School Cooperation; *Educational Finance; Elementary Secondary Education; Higher Education; Literature Reviews; *Partnerships in Education; *Preservice Teacher Education; *Professional Development Schools; Program Evaluation
Identifiers: *Research Teaching Relationship

Journal Articles

EJ557851 CE532152
Using Content Analysis to Evaluate the Success of a Professional Development School.
Schverak, Amy; Coltharp, Crystal; Cooner, Donna
Educational Forum, v62 n2 p172-77 Win 1998
Interviews with participants in a professional development school identified expectations of the partnership (student focus, better trained teachers), positive outcomes (real-world experience for student teachers, extra attention for students, professional growth for participating teachers), and problems (communication between school and university and within the school). (SK)
Descriptors: *Content Analysis; Elementary Education; Higher Education; Preservice Teacher Education; *Professional Development Schools; Program Evaluation; *Student Teachers; *Teacher Researchers

EJ556316 SP526475
Can Professional Development Schools Help Us Achieve What Matters Most?
Levine, Marsha
Action in Teacher Education, v19 n2 p63-73 Sum 1997
Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); POSITION PAPER (120)
After examining the beginning of the professional development school (PDS) movement, this paper describes the PDS model; discusses PDSs, teacher education, and school reform; and presents critical attributes of PDSs (nurturing a true learning community, stressing collaboration, and creating greater professional and public accountability). Threshold conditions for creating PDSs are noted. (SM)
Descriptors: Accountability; *College School Cooperation; Collegiality; Educational Change; Elementary Secondary Education; Experiential Learning; Higher Education; *Partnerships in Education; Preservice Teacher Education; *Professional Development Schools; Quality Control; Teacher Collaboration

EJ556315 SP526474
A New Institution: The Emerging Educational Community in an Effective Professional Development School.
Ebert, Christine
Action in Teacher Education, v19 n2 p55-62 Sum 1997
Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); POSITION PAPER (120)
This paper describes the daily interactions between university liaison and K-12 faculty and administrators at a professional development school. It contrasts various levels of collaboration and interaction within professional development schools and student teaching environments, contending that educational community develops in effective professional development schools when all partners are perceived to be equally valued. (SM)
Descriptors: College Faculty; *College School Cooperation; Collegiality; Cooperating Teachers; Elementary Education; Elementary School Teachers; Experiential Learning; Higher Education; *Partnerships in Education; Preservice Teacher Education; *Professional Development Schools; Student Participation; Student Teacher Supervisors; Student Teachers; Student Teaching; Teacher Attitudes; *Teacher Collaboration; Teamwork
Identifiers: University of South Carolina

EJ556069 RC512294
Exploring "Front-Line" Views: Veterans' Perceptions of One Professional Development School after Four Years.
Castle, Joyce B.; Hunter, Rosemary
Alberta Journal of Educational Research, v43 n4 p177-91 Win 1997
Reports on interviews with 12 veteran elementary school teachers involved in developing and maintaining a professional development school (PDS) in southern Ontario (Canada) during its first four years. The teachers thought that the PDS was successful and had promoted their professional development but had not affected their instructional practices. Contains 43 references. (Author/SV)
Descriptors: *College School Cooperation; *Cooperating Teachers; *Educational Change; Elementary Education; Elementary School Teachers; Elementary Schools; Faculty Development; Foreign Countries; Higher Education; *Professional Development Schools; Student Teaching; *Teacher Attitudes
Identifiers: Ontario

EJ553066 SP526353
The Promise and the Promises: Partnerships from a University Perspective.
Higgins, Karen M.; Merickel, Mark L.
Teacher Educator, v32 n3 p165-84 Win 1997
Describes issues experienced by university faculty members during the creation of two university/middle school partnerships. Benefits included a broader community of professional colleagues, opportunities for research collaboration, and firsthand experience with school reform. Tensions included conflicts with the university's reward system, time required to build trust, and difficulties balancing two worlds. (Author/SM)
Descriptors: *College School Cooperation; Educational Change; Higher Education; Intermediate Grades; Junior High Schools; *Middle Schools; *Partnerships in Education; Preservice Teacher Education; *Professional Development Schools; Public Schools; Teacher Educators
Identifiers: Oregon State University

EJ550516 EA533758
The Promise of Professional Development Schools.
Lecos, Mary Anne
Principal, v77 n1 p14,16,18-19 Sep 1997
Although professional-school models differ markedly, they generally share visions of how the school-university partnership can improve teacher education and schooling; commitment to shared decision making and funding; and new roles for university and school faculty. George Mason University's experience demonstrates that concentrating efforts within the PDS framework creates learning communities where knowledge can be constructed collaboratively and applied immediately. (MLH)
Descriptors: *Beginning Teachers; *College School Cooperation; Elementary Secondary Education; *Participative Decision Making; *Professional Development Schools; Program Descriptions; Shared Resources and Services
Identifiers: *George Mason University VA; *Learning Communities

EJ549262 HE537178
Collaborating for Success: Case History of a School-College Partnership.
Justiz, Manuel J.
Educational Record, v78 n2 p31-38 Spr 1997
The College of Education at the University of Texas at Austin is collaborating with the Austin Independent School District to improve teacher education through restructuring of the preservice curriculum, infusion of technology into teacher preparation, a research-based internship program, new teacher mentoring, and administrator development. One program result is greater mutual support and respect between faculty and teachers. (MSE)
Descriptors: *Administrator Education; Change Strategies; College Faculty; *College School Cooperation; Curriculum Development; Educational Change; *Educational Technology; Higher Education; Interprofessional Relationship; Mentors; *Preservice Teacher Education; Professional Development; Professional Development Schools; Program Descriptions; School Districts; Schools of Education; State Universities; *Teacher Education; Teachers; Technological Advancement
Identifiers: *Austin Independent School District TX; *University of Texas Austin

EJ547290 EA533546
Teaching, Research, and Service in a Professional Development School.
Clarke, John H.
Phi Delta Kappan, v78 n10 p789-92 Jun 1997
Through an Essex High School/University of Vermont partnership, students can complete all 33 credits of the teacher licensing program within high school walls. Each three-credit course includes theory-focused class meetings and action-focused practica that inspire students to develop and conduct action-research projects. As a roving education professor, the author enjoys the vibrancy of the professional development school experience. (MLH)
Descriptors: *College School Cooperation; *Education Courses; *Experiential Learning; High Schools; Higher Education; Partnerships in Education; *Professional Development Schools; Program Descriptions; Schools of Education; *Teacher Education; *Teacher Educators
Identifiers: *Vermont (Burlington)

Parent–Teacher Relationships

ERIC Documents

ED417547 EC306292
Improving Communication between Parents and Teachers: Promoting Effective Intervention for Students with Disabilities.
Spinelli, Cathleen G.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Geographic Source: U.S.; New Jersey
Target Audience: Practitioners
This paper discusses the importance of teachers and parents of students with learning disabilities working together to ensure that students' educational programs are appropriate and address their specific needs. It provides guidelines aimed at fostering positive teacher-parent relationships by discussing recent legislative mandates and current policy issues. It also addresses methods of positive and constructive communication and issues related to interaction between parents and teachers which should promote successful home-school partnerships. Recommended teacher strategies include: (1) explaining the class goals and objectives at the first meeting and inviting parents to share any relevant information that would help the teacher to understand the child; (2) preparing for teacher parent conferences and finding a mutually convenient time; (3) providing enough time to devote to the conference and providing a comfortable meeting room; (4) arranging seating so that all parties are perceived to be equal; (5) using clear terminology; (6) setting an agenda that is structured but still flexible; (7) encouraging parents to discuss any problems they or their children are experiencing; (8) ensuring that all parties know their rights; (9) being cognizant of cultural differences; and (10) involving students in the planning process as much as possible. (Contains 47 references.) (CR)
Descriptors: Communication Skills; *Disabilities; Educational Legislation; Educational Planning; Educational Policy; Elementary Secondary Education; Guidelines; *Individualized Education Programs; *Interpersonal Communication; *Parent Participation; Parent School Relationship; *Parent Teacher Conferences; *Parent Teacher Cooperation

ED417039 PS026391
Families and Teachers as Partners. Early Childhood Digest.
Kreider, Holly
National Inst. on Early Childhood Development and Education (ED/OERI).
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Geographic Source: U.S.; District of Columbia
Government: Federal
Target Audience: Parents; Practitioners; Teachers
Many parents do not know how to become involved in their children's education, and many teachers do not receive enough training in working with families. This quarterly early childhood digest discusses ways families and schools can work together to help young children learn and grow. The digest begins by describing how a teacher's home visit helped her learn about the talents of one student's father, which became a bridge to his involvement with the school. The digest then discusses what families can do to work better with schools, including meeting with the teacher or caregiver, clarifying expectations, sharing perceptions of the child's interests and challenges, and sharing their time and talents. The remainder of the digest discusses how teachers and families can work together, including parents letting teachers know about the family, parents being encouraged by school personnel to get involved, and school personnel learning how to respect and value different cultures. (HTH)
Descriptors: Cooperation; Early Childhood Education; *Family School Relationship; Parent Aspiration; *Parent Participation; *Parent Teacher Cooperation; Parents as Teachers; Teacher Expectations of Students; Teacher Role

ED416027 PS026241
Parent Involvement in Children's Education: Efforts by Public Elementary Schools. National Center for Education Statistics Statistical Analysis Report.
Carey, Nancy; Lewis, Laurie; Farris, Elizabeth
Westat, Inc., Rockville, MD.
Report No: NCES-98-032
ISBN: 0-16-049388-9
Available From: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop: SSOP, Washington, DC 20402-9328.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.
Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143)
Geographic Source: U.S.; District of Columbia
Government: Federal
In response to the National Education Goals panel's recognition of the role that parents can have in children's learning and school performance, the "Survey on Family and School Partnerships in Public Schools K-8" was conducted to determine the ways schools are engaging parents in their children's education and the extent to which parents are responding to those involvement opportunities. Questionnaires were sent to a nationally representative sample of 900 public schools enrolling kindergarten through eighth grade students. The survey looked at the kinds of school-home communication schools establish, kinds of activities schools sponsor, kinds of volunteer activities schools make available, the extent to which parents are included in school decision making, and other factors that influence school efforts to increase parent involvement. Among the findings highlighted are the following: (1) most schools initiated communications with parents to inform them about school curricula and student performance; (2) most schools provided parents with information designed to promote learning at home and on topics related to child-rearing issues; (3) the majority of schools held various activities, such as parent conferences and academic exhibitions, intended to encourage parent involvement; (5) parents were more likely to attend events that featured some interaction with the students' teachers; (6) parent attendance at school-sponsored events varied by geographic region, poverty concentration, and minority enrollment; (7) in general, schools do not include parents in very much school decision making; (8) the majority of schools provided parents opportunities to volunteer both inside and outside the classroom, to assist in fundraising and attend PTA meetings, though the percentage of schools satisfied with the degree of parent participation in these activities decreased as minority and poor student enrollment increased; and (9) lack of time on the part of parents was most often named as the greatest barrier impeding parent involvement. (Three appendices include survey methodology and data reliability and the survey form.) (HTH)
Descriptors: Academic Achievement; Educational Improvement; Elementary Education; Family School Relationship; Minority Group Children; Outcomes of Education; Parent Influence; *Parent Participation; Parent Role; *Parent School Relationship; Parent Student Relationship; Poverty; *Public Schools
Identifiers: Goals 2000

Journal Articles

EJ539903 PS526163
Acknowledging Diversity in Home Literacy Practices: Moving Towards Partnership with Parents.
Cairney, Trevor H.
Early Child Development and Care, v127-128 p61-73 1997
Special Issue on: "Perspectives on Family Literacy."
Document Type: POSITION PAPER (120); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Provides overview of major initiatives in family literacy and argues for fundamental change in the way schools relate to parents and the community. Suggests that schools and communities need to develop more effective partnerships so that parents and teachers can develop a sense of shared understanding. Concludes that such initiatives will lead to positive outcomes for all students. (MOK)
Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Community Involvement; Cultural Awareness; *Literacy; *Parent Participation; Parent School Relationship; *Parent Teacher Cooperation; *Partnerships in Education; School Community Programs; School Role; Young Children
Identifiers: *Family Literacy; Parent Teacher Relationship

EJ538104 PS526007
Introduction to the Special Issue: Developing a Relationship Perspective in Early Childhood Research.
Elicker, James
Early Education and Development, v8 n1 p5-10 Jan 1997
Special Issue on: "Relationships in Early Childhood Programs".
Presents an overview on the relationship perspective in early childhood research, identifying the major research questions involved, and relating them to the papers presented in the remainder of the journal issue. (EAJ)
Descriptors: Caregiver Child Relationship; *Early Childhood Education; *Educational Research; *Interpersonal Relationship; Outcomes of Education; Parent Child Relationship; Teacher Student Relationship; *Young Children
Identifiers: Parent Caregiver Relationship; Parent Teacher Relationship

EJ534658 PS525824
Teaching Teachers about Needs of Parents.
Bronsil, Elizabeth
Montessori Life, v8 n4 p31-32 Fall 1996
Describes activities in a university child observation class to sensitize students to diverse parents' needs related to school involvement. Presents feedback regarding parents' needs from: interviews with adoptive parents; interviews with single parents; and interviews with parents regarding parent-teacher conferences. (KDFB)
Descriptors: Adoptive Parents; *Family Needs; *Higher Education; One Parent Family; *Parent Attitudes; Parent Participation; Parents; *Parent School Relationship; Parent Teacher Conferences; *Teacher Education
Identifiers: Diversity (Groups); *Parent Needs; Parent Teacher Relationship

EJ520477 PS524702
A Mini Portfolio on Working with Parents.
Baskwill, Jane; And Others
Teaching PreK-8, v26 n5 p49-61 Feb 1996
Presents the following six articles on working with parents: (1) "Conversing with Parents through Dialogue Journals"; (2) "Reading with Your Child at Home"; (3) "Dads by the Dozens"; (4) "Parents in Your Classroom: A Valuable Literacy Link"; (5) "Inclusion: But They Still Won't Play with Me"; and (6) "The Special Education Case Conference." (TJQ)
Descriptors: *Dialog Journals; Early Childhood Education; Elementary Education; Fathers; Inclusive Schools; *Literacy; Parent Child Relationship; *Parent Participation; Parent School Relationship; Parent Teacher Conferences; *Peer Relationship; *Reading Aloud to Others; *Special Needs Students
Identifiers: *Parent Teacher Relationship; Shared Book Experience; Shared Reading

EJ516732 PS524342
Making Parent Involvement a Reality: Helping Teachers Develop Partnerships with Parents.
Brand, Susan
Young Children, v51 n2 p76-81 Jan 1996
Describes a program called PITCH (Project Interconnecting Teachers, Children and Homes) for Literacy, a parent involvement program that offered a series of workshops to elementary and preschool teachers and administrators in order to improve home-school relationships. Provides guidelines, references, and resources for similar efforts. (ET)
Descriptors: Early Childhood Education; Literacy; Parent Participation; *Parent School Relationship; Parent Student Relationship; *Partnerships in Education; Young Children
Identifiers: Emergent Literacy; Parent Teacher Relationship; *Pitch for Literacy Project; Wordless Picture Books

EJ521210 CG548336
Exploring Parent-Teacher Relationships: Joining and Communication to Others.
Vickers, Harleen S.; Minke, Kathleen M.
School Psychology Quarterly, v10 n2 p133-50 Sum 1995
Investigates the applicability of two modified family systems constructs to parent-teacher relationships. Results suggested two related factors, joining and communication, as important elements of parent-teacher relationships. Data gathered in the second stage revealed that the joining factor included affiliation and support, dependability and availability, and shared expectations and beliefs. (JPS)
Descriptors: *Communication (Thought Transfer); Elementary Education; Family School Relationship; Interpersonal Relationship; *Parent Teacher Cooperation; *Pilot Projects
Identifiers: Family Systems Theory; *Parent Teacher Relationship

EJ516696 PS524227
In the Child's Best Interests.
Gonzalez-Mena, Janet; Stonehouse, Anne
Child Care Information Exchange, n106 p17-18,20 Nov-Dec 1995
Reminds early care teachers to make quality decisions that keep the child's best interests in mind. Gives several examples of possible parent-school conflicts and guidelines for resolution that keep the child's best interest foremost. (ET)
Descriptors: *Child Caregivers; Childhood Needs; Day Care; Day Care Centers; *Decision Making Skills; Early Childhood Education; *Parent School Relationship; *Parent Teacher Cooperation; *Preschool Teachers; Young Children
Identifiers: *Decision Quality; Decisions; Parent Caregiver Relationship; Parent Teacher Relationship

Electronic Journals

ERIC Documents

ED414931 IR056789
Digital Documents and the Future of the Academic Community.
Lyman, Peter
14p.; Paper presented at the Conference on Scholarly Communication and Technology (Atlanta, GA, April 24-25, 1997), see IR 056 774.
Available From: Association of Research Libraries (ARL) Web site: http://www.arl.org/scomm/scat/
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Geographic Source: U.S.; California
This paper examines the dynamics of change in scholarly publishing and the impact of technological innovation upon the academic community for which the system of scholarly communication serves as an infrastructure. For the purposes of this discussion, what is of immediate interest is the way the productivity issue frames the possible dimensions of the dynamics of technological innovation, thereby setting a research agenda for the future. From the perspective of academic publishing, the academic community consists of two markets in which "gift" exchanges are governed by contract, that of authors and that of the consumers, the largest of which are academic research libraries. Higher education is both the producer and consumer of scholarly publications. Three new factors define the conditions within which a system of scholarly communication may evolve: (1) the emergence of a global economy in which intellectual property is an important source of wealth; (2) the end of the cold war as a stimulus for national information policy which took the form of federal funding for research; and (3) the cultural diversity of society, and the replacement of a melting pot idea by a transnational culture, which may create new social contexts for education. The remainder of this paper examines issues related to digital documents and academic productivity, and digital documents and the academic community. (AEF)
Descriptors: Academic Libraries; Computer Mediated Communication; *Educational Change; Educational Development; Electronic Journals; Faculty Publishing; *Futures (of Society); Higher Education; Publishing Industry; Research; *Scholarly Journals; Technological Advancement
Identifiers: Electronic Resources; *SGML

ED414928 IR056786
Patterns of Use for the Bryn Mawr Reviews.
Hamilton, Richard; Shory, Paul
13p.; Paper presented at the Conference on Scholarly Communication and Technology (Atlanta, GA, April 24-25, 1997), see IR 056 774.
Available From: Association of Research Libraries (ARL) Web site: http://www.arl.org/scomm/scat/
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Geographic Source: U.S.; Pennsylvania
Bryn Mawr Reviews (BMR) produces two electronic review journals, "Bryn Mawr Classical Review," (BMCR) which also comes out in paper and "Bryn Mawr Medieval Review" (BMMR). BMR has two sets of users: subscribers and gopher hitters. Analysis of the monthly gopher reports has concentrated on the hitters rather than the hits; analysis of total users shows that use has leveled off at a peak of about 3800 users a month. Subscriptions to the electronic journals continue to grow at a rate of 5% per quarter, though there are considerable seasonal fluctuations. In terms of progress and cost recovery, progress is satisfactory but cost recovery is still uncertain. BMCR is growing at the rate of 30% a year. About half the costs of BMCR goes for producing the paper version. A possible reduction in costs besides elimination of the paper version and automatic mark-up is a "fast-track" system whereby the review never leaves the Internet. The great advantage for the reviewer is that this cuts publication time by a month; the disadvantage is that the reviewer is asked to do some simple mark-up on the text before sending it. Seven charts show statistics. (AEF)
Descriptors: Cost Effectiveness; *Cost Indexes; *Costs; *Electronic Journals; Higher Education; Printed Materials; Publications; *Scholarly Journals; Use Studies; Users (Information)
Identifiers: Bryn Mawr College PA; Electronic Resources; Gopher

ED414926 IR056784
The Economics of Electronic Journals.
Odlyzko, Andrew
14p.; Paper presented at the Conference on Scholarly Communication and Technology (Atlanta, GA, April 24-25, 1997), see IR 056 774.
Available From: Association of Research Libraries (ARL) Web Site: http://www.arl.org/scomm/scat/
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Geographic Source: U.S.; California
It is widely accepted that scholarly journals will have to be available in digital formats; what is not settled is whether they can be much less expensive than print journals. This paper is divided into five sections, including an introduction. Section 1 highlights publishers' views on costs of electronic journals and the replacement of free electronic journals by electronic subscription journals. Section 2 summarizes the economics of the current price journal system and section 3 looks at the electronic-only journals that have sprung up over the last few years and are available for free on the Internet. In section 4 the strange economic incentives that exist in scholarly publishing are discussed. Section 5 presents some tentative conclusions and projections. The basic assumption made in this article is that the costs of scholarly publishing should be minimized to the largest extent consistent with delivering the services that scholars and the society they serve require. (Contains 25 references.) (AEF)
Descriptors: *Cost Effectiveness; Cost Indexes; *Costs; *Electronic Journals; *Electronic Publishing; *Fees; Higher Education; Information Dissemination; Internet; Periodicals; *Scholarly Journals; User Needs (Information)
Identifiers: Electronic Resources

ED414923 IR056781
The Future of Electronic Journals.
Varian, Hal R.
14p.; Paper presented at the Conference on Scholarly Communication and Technology (Atlanta, GA, April 24-25, 1997), see IR 056 774.
Available From: Association of Research Libraries (ARL) Web site: http://www.arl.org/scomm/scat/
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Geographic Source: U.S.; California
It is widely expected that a great deal of scholarly communication will move to an electronic format. This paper speculates about the impact this movement will have on the form of scholarly communication. In order to understand how journals might evolve, the paper begins with a look at the demand and supply for scholarly commutation today, as well as the first-copy costs of academic journals. Two other costs are then mentioned: archiving and yearly costs-per-article read. A discussion on re-engineering journal production and the impact of re-engineering on costs savings follows. Further savings of electronic distribution on shelf-space, monitoring, information searches, and supporting materials are then outlined. The paper concludes that when all academic publication is electronic: (1) publications will have much more general forms; (2) new filtering and refereeing mechanisms will be used; and (3) archiving and standardization will remain a problem. A model for electronic publishing is also presented. (Contains 12 references.) (AEF)
Descriptors: Cost Effectiveness; Costs; *Electronic Journals; *Electronic Publishing; *Faculty Publishing; Higher Education; Information Dissemination; Information Storage; Information Technology; Nonprint Media; Printed Materials; Publications; *Publishing Industry; *Scholarly Journals; Standards
Identifiers: Circulation (Publications); Electronic Resources; SGML

ED414916 IR056774
Scholarly Communication and Technology. Papers from the Conference Organized by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and Held at Emory University (Atlanta, Georgia, April 24-25, 1997).
468p.; "A print publication, including the papers presented, a synthesis of the discussions, and some additional analysis of the topic will be made available at a later date by the University of California Press." For individual papers separately analyzed, see IR 056 775-799.
Available From: The Web site of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL), which is hosting the papers electronically at: http://www.arl.org/scomm/scat/
EDRS Price - MF01/PC19 Plus Postage.
Geographic Source: U.S.; Georgia
This document includes 25 papers and conference summation remarks presented at the Scholarly Communication and Technology Conference. Issues under discussion during this 2-day event included the economics of electronic publishing, incorporating technology into academia, the future of consortia and access versus ownership, electronic content licensing, and updates on several electronic scholarly initiatives. Papers are divided according to the following nine sessions: (1) "The Economics of Electronic Publishing: Cost Issues"; (2) "The Evolution of Journals"; (3) "Economics of Electronic Publishing: Journals Pricing and User Acceptance"; (4) "Patterns of Usage"; (5) "Technical Choices and Standards"; (6) "Copyright and Fair Use"; (7) "Multi-Institutional Cooperation"; (8) "Sustaining Change"; (9) "Summation." (AEF)
Descriptors: Access to Information; Change; Computer Mediated Communication; *Conference Proceedings; Costs; *Electronic Journals; Electronic Publishing; Fair Use (Copyrights); Higher Education; *Information Technology; *Scholarly Journals; Standards; Users (Information)
Identifiers: Electronic Resources

ED409867 IR018456
Print vs. Online Scholarly Publishing: Notes and Reflections on the Peer Review Process.
Ryder, Martin
4p.; In: Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Presentations at the 1997 National Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (19th, Albuquerque, NM, February 14-18, 1997); see IR 018 421.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Geographic Source: U.S.; Maryland
This paper addresses some of the major shifts in thinking about the nature of publishing and in basic beliefs regarding the peer review process in scholarly communication. Changes in the notion of ownership in the an age of technology are considered. Differences between the referee system with print publications and electronic text are outlined and the shift from the conception of peer review from a summary process to an emergent process is illustrated, noting the public availability of online articles that are in the process of being reviewed and are subject to revision. The "plasticity" of electronic text opens the way for interactivity as a means for quality control, an approach which views text as an organic, dynamic phenomenon capable of adapting and changing within the context from which it was conceived. The paper concludes with a description of a model of an electronic journal that encompasses both an open studio and a showcase gallery environment for textual artifacts, a model which offers the flexibility needed to implement open, interactive peer review, promising speed and diversity of opinion. (AEF)
Descriptors: Access to Information; *Change Agents; *Electronic Journals; Electronic Text; Faculty Publishing; Higher Education; Information Technology; Ownership; *Publishing Industry; Scholarly Journals; Writing for Publication
Identifiers: *Peer Review Organizations; *Scholarly Communication; Scholarly Writing

Journal Articles

EJ555072 CE531951
The Journal of Extension Goes Electronic: Results of a Subscriber Evaluation Survey.
Lambur, Michael
Journal of Extension, v35 n6 Dec 1997
The Journal of Extension became completely electronic in 1994. A 1996 e-mail survey received 534 responses from 2,037 subscribers indicating that 32.9% access it through the World Wide Web, 29.5% via e-mail, and 11% through gopher. Access was equitable across job types, and 72.9% liked the electronic format. (SK)
Descriptors: *Access to Information; *Electronic Journals; *Extension Education; Information Sources

EJ554219 IR536023
It Is Time to Become Discriminating Consumers.
Boyce, Peter B.
Against the Grain, v9 n5 p86-87 Nov 1997
Emphasizes the need for users to be educated about what constitutes a quality electronic journal. Discusses two classes of full text electronic journals; characteristics of a well-designed journal; reasons more publishers don't provide full-featured, linked HTML journals (conservatism, difficulty, cost); and answering long-term archiving and access. (AEF)
Descriptors: Access to Information; Design; *Electronic Journals; Electronic Publishing; Information Technology; Online Systems; Publishing Industry; Scholarly Journals; User Needs (Information); User Satisfaction (Information)

EJ554168 IR535964
Is the Journal As We Know It an Article of Faith? An Open Letter to the Faculty.
Morton, Bruce
Public-Access Computer Systems Review, v8 n2 p1-9 1997
Discusses scholarly communication, functions of scholarly journals, and the possibility of changing from a printed version to an electronic journal. Highlights include dissemination; timeliness; peer review; recognition and award; rising costs of printed journals and decreasing serials budgets in academic libraries; paradigm shifts; and new models for consideration. (LRW)
Descriptors: Academic Libraries; Awards; Change; Costs; *Electronic Journals; Higher Education; Information Dissemination; *Journal Articles; Models; Peer Evaluation; Printed Materials; Professional Recognition; *Scholarly Journals
Identifiers: Paradigm Shifts; *Scholarly Communication; Timeliness

EJ552697 IR535952
Monopoly Power and Electronic Journals.
Meyer, Richard W.
Library Quarterly, v67 n4 p325-49 Oct 1997
Rising periodical prices and lagging library budgets have many academics hoping that scholarly print journals will migrate to online versions. Examines economic factors shaping the electronic journal market, emerging new electronic journals, access versus ownership, consortial purchasing, self-maintained infrastructures, elimination of tenure and promotion, and taking legal action to unbundle articles. (50 references) (PEN)
Descriptors: *Academic Libraries; Access to Information; Consortia; Costs; *Economic Factors; *Electronic Journals; Electronic Publishing; Faculty Promotion; Higher Education; Library Expenditures; Online Catalogs; *Printed Materials; *Scholarly Journals; Tenure
Identifiers: *Monopoly

EJ549379 IR535482
Introducing the Scope and Standards of the "Journal of Interactive Learning Research."
Reeves, Thomas C.
Educational Technology Review, n7 p5-8 Sum 1997
Describes the "Journal of Interactive Learning Research." Topics include the future of refereed journals in light of electronic journals; interactivity; conceptions of learning; types of research methodologies; standards; and types of submission to the journal. (LRW)
Descriptors: Electronic Journals; Futures (of Society); *Interaction; Journal Articles; *Learning Theories; Research Methodology; *Scholarly Journals; Standards; Writing for Publication

EJ547750 IR535254
Web Journals and Education.
Monty, Vivienne
Education Libraries, v20 n3 p11-17 1997
Discusses electronic journals available on the World Wide Web, particularly in the field of education. Highlights include hypermedia journals; journals, the Internet, and education and learning theory; journal formats; the role of the librarian; and concerns, including archiving, copyright, updating, and subscriptions. (LRW)
Descriptors: Archives; Copyrights; *Educational Resources; *Electronic Journals; Hypermedia; Information Sources; Information Storage; Internet; Layout (Publications); Learning Theories; Librarians; Library Role; *World Wide Web
Identifiers: Subscribers (Magazines)

EJ546254 IR535155
Design and Implementation of a Web-Based Electronic Refereeing System.
Zhang, Zhongdong
Review of Information Science, v2 n1 May 1997
Refereeing has been one means of ensuring the quality of publications in conventional scholarly publishing. However, conventional refereeing, with its reliance on traditional mail communication cannot meet the needs of electronic journal publishing. Examines the traditional refereeing system, describes a World Wide Web-based electronic form of refereeing, and discusses its advantages. (PEN)
Descriptors: *Computer System Design; *Electronic Journals; Electronic Publishing; Online Systems; *Program Implementation; Publishing Industry; Quality Control; *Scholarly Journals; Technological Advancement; *World Wide Web
Identifiers: *Refereed Journals

EJ544700 IR534899
Clicking onto Webzines.
Brody, Herb
Technology Review, v100 n4 p38-47 May-Jun 1997
Journal availability: Technology Review, P.O. Box 489, Mount Morris, IL 61054.
Amid the growth of the World Wide Web, Web magazines have risen to popularity. Topics include their hypermedia features; online panel discussions; video and audio; space and time; and costs, advertising, and access fees. Highlights "Slate," "Salon," "Hotwired," "Feed," and "Word." Concludes that webzines face challenges in establishing themselves as a viable medium. (PEN)
Descriptors: Access to Information; Advertising; Costs; Discussion; *Electronic Journals; *Electronic Publishing; Fees; Hypermedia; Vendors; *World Wide Web
Identifiers: *Electronic Media; Links (Indexing); *Zines